Human RFP2 gene promoter: unique structure and unusual strength

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Apr 14;342(3):859-66. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.01.187. Epub 2006 Feb 17.


Human gene RFP2 is a candidate tumor suppressor located at 13q14.3 and deleted in multiple tumor types. To explore regulation of RFP2, we determined structure of the 5'-untranslated region of RFP2 gene and its promoter. RFP2 promoter area is TATA-less, highly enriched in G and C nucleotides, and contains multiple quadruplex forming GGGGA-repeats. Deletion analysis of 5'-flanking sequences demonstrated that repeat containing fragment possesses activity seven times exceeding that of the combined SV40 promoter/enhancer. Other unusual features of the RFP2 promoter include anomalously high electrostatic fields induced by sequence-dependent dipoles and very low nucleosome forming potential. A "minimized" version of the RFP2 promoter could be used for overexpression of the various transgenes in the mammalian cells.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Base Sequence
  • Computational Biology
  • DNA / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • Expressed Sequence Tags
  • G-Quadruplexes
  • Gene Expression Regulation / genetics*
  • Genome, Human
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nucleosomes / metabolism
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics*
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Nucleosomes
  • TRIM13 protein, human
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • DNA

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AF241848