This self-directed learning module highlights the recent innovations in amputee care. It is part of the study guide on limb deficiency in the Self-Directed Physiatric Education Program for practitioners and trainees in physical medicine and rehabilitation. This focused review article describes the key elements of a successful comprehensive amputee program, the basic surgical considerations for upper- and lower-extremity amputation, and some of the more recent advances in prosthetic components. Further, an update is given on issues such as hand transplantation and the integration of robotics and artificial muscles for people with limb loss.
Overall article objective: (a) To discuss current issues and advances in the care of patients with amputation, (b) to describe the key elements in designing a comprehensive amputee care program, and (c) to discuss surgical considerations of limb preservation and amputation levels.