Localized proton NMR spectroscopy in the human brain is one of the more technically advanced applications of human in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Spin/echo techniques introduced reliable localization procedures, whereas the introduction of phase encoding techniques improved the spatial information content considerably. Using the sensitivity of the 1H NMR signal, a spatial resolution of 7 X 7 X 15 mm can be obtained. Chemical shift images can be reconstructed to represent the choline, creatine, N-acetyl aspartate and lactate distribution in the human brain. These low resolution images may be used as a new functional imaging modality to visualize and derive quantitative biochemical information from focal brain lesions under normal and pathological conditions.