Adenoviruses are lytic DNA viruses that are ubiquitous in human communities. In total, 51 different serotypes with varying tissue tropisms have been identified. Adenovirus infections, although frequent, are rarely fatal in immunocompetent individuals who have potent innate and adaptive immunity. But in immunosuppressed individuals, adenoviruses are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, with limited treatment options. In particular, pediatric recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation frequently develop infections early in the posttransplantation period. Because the endogenous recovery of adenovirus-specific T cells has proven important in controlling infection, we explore the potential of adoptive T-cell immunotherapy as a therapeutic strategy. We discuss the advantages and limitations of T-cell therapy for the prophylaxis and treatment of adenovirus infection posttransplantation.