Objective: To analyze the impact of age at onset on the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to diabetic nephropathy in a nationwide population-based cohort with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes.
Research design and methods: A record linkage between two nationwide registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Registry, including 12,032 cases with childhood-onset diabetes, and the Swedish Registry for Active Treatment of Uraemia was performed. Log-rank test was used to test differences between cumulative risk curves of developing ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy in three different strata of age at onset (0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years).
Results: At a maximum follow-up of 27 years, 33 patients had developed ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy and all had a diabetes duration >15 years. In total, 4,414 patients had diabetes duration >15 years, and thus the risk in this cohort to develop ESRD was 33 of 4,414 (0.7%). A significant difference in risk of developing ESRD was found between the youngest (0-4 years) and the two older (5-9 and 10-14 years) age-at-onset strata (P = 0.03 and P = 0.001, respectively). A significant difference in the risk of developing ESRD was also found between children with prepubertal (0-4 and 5-9 years, n = 2,424) and pubertal (10-14 years, n = 2000) onset of diabetes (P = 0.002). No patient with onset of diabetes before 5 years of age had developed ESRD.
Conclusions: With a median duration of 21 years in this population-based Swedish cohort with childhood-onset diabetes, <1% of the patients had developed ESRD due to diabetic nephropathy, and a prepubertal onset of diabetes seems to prolong the time to development of ESRD.