Drug delivery to the eye is hampered by anatomical factors, including the corneal epithelium, the blood-aqueous barrier and the blood-retinal barrier. This review aims to outline the major routes of ocular drug delivery, including systemic, topical, periocular and intravitreal. The pharmacokinetics, the disadvantages and the clinical relevance of these drug delivery routes have been emphasised. Recent advances in surgical techniques, therapeutic approaches and material sciences have produced exciting new therapies for ocular diseases. The role of ophthalmic drug formulation in targeting the desired ocular tissue and enhancing drug delivery by the chosen route whilst minimising side effects is also discussed.