Background and aim: Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality, accounting for an estimated 30,000 deaths per year in the United States. Multiple studies have indicated that specific cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors may serve in the prevention and treatment of a variety of malignancies including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Recent studies had shown that the long-term use of high concentration of COX-2 inhibitors is not toxic free and may be limited due to serious gastrointestinal and cardiovascular side effects. The chemopreventive efficacy of the phytochemical, curcumin has been demonstrated in several in vitro and animal models. In this study we investigated whether curcumin potentiates the growth inhibition effect of a COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib, Pfizer, NY, USA) in human pancreatic cancer cells.
Methods: P-34 (expressing high levels of COX-2), and MIAPaCa (expressing low levels of COX-2) and Panc-1 (no expression of COX-2) evaluated cell lines were exposed to different concentrations of celecoxib (0-40 microM), curcumin (0-20 microM) and their combination. Cell viability was by XTT assay. Apoptosis was assessed by flow cytometry and COX-2 expression was measured by Western blotting analysis.
Results: In P-34 cells, curcumin synergistically potentiated the inhibitory effect of celecoxib on cell growth. The growth inhibition was associated with inhibition of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Western blot analysis showed that COX-2 expression was down-regulated by the combination therapy.
Conclusion: Curcumin synergistically augments the growth inhibition inserted by celecoxib in pancreatic cancer cells expressing COX-2. The synergistic effect was mediated through inhibition of COX-2. This may enable the use of celecoxib at lower and safer concentrations and may pave the way for a more effective treatment in this devastating disease.