Coffee and health: a review of recent human research

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(2):101-23. doi: 10.1080/10408390500400009.

Abstract

Coffee is a complex mixture of chemicals that provides significant amounts of chlorogenic acid and caffeine. Unfiltered coffee is a significant source of cafestol and kahweol, which are diterpenes that have been implicated in the cholesterol-raising effects of coffee. The results of epidemiological research suggest that coffee consumption may help prevent several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, Parkinson's disease and liver disease (cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Most prospective cohort studies have not found coffee consumption to be associated with significantly increased cardiovascular disease risk. However, coffee consumption is associated with increases in several cardiovascular disease risk factors, including blood pressure and plasma homocysteine. At present, there is little evidence that coffee consumption increases the risk of cancer. For adults consuming moderate amounts of coffee (3-4 cups/d providing 300-400 mg/d of caffeine), there is little evidence of health risks and some evidence of health benefits. However, some groups, including people with hypertension, children, adolescents, and the elderly, may be more vulnerable to the adverse effects of caffeine. In addition, currently available evidence suggests that it may be prudent for pregnant women to limit coffee consumption to 3 cups/d providing no more than 300 mg/d of caffeine to exclude any increased probability of spontaneous abortion or impaired fetal growth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Caffeine / adverse effects
  • Caffeine / poisoning
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / epidemiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / prevention & control
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / etiology
  • Child
  • Chlorogenic Acid
  • Coffee* / adverse effects
  • Coffee* / chemistry
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Colorectal Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / prevention & control
  • Diterpenes
  • Female
  • Glucose Intolerance
  • Health Promotion
  • Health*
  • Hip Fractures / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Liver Cirrhosis / epidemiology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / prevention & control
  • Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • Liver Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Parkinson Disease / epidemiology
  • Parkinson Disease / prevention & control
  • Pregnancy
  • Suicide / prevention & control

Substances

  • Coffee
  • Diterpenes
  • Chlorogenic Acid
  • Caffeine
  • kahweol
  • cafestol