Resveratrol, a polyphenol phytoalexin, possesses diverse biochemical and physiological actions, including estrogenic, antiplatelet, and anti-inflammatory properties. Several recent studies determined the cardioprotective abilities of resveratrol. Both in experiments (acute) and in chronic models, resveratrol attenuates myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis, and reduces ventricular arrhythmias. It appears that resveratrol-mediated cardioprotection is achieved through the preconditioning effect (the best yet devised method of cardioprotection), rather than direct protection. Thus, resveratrol likely fulfills the definition of a pharmacological preconditioning compound and gives hope to the therapeutic promise of alternative medicine.