Context: Experimental studies and early phase clinical trials suggest that transplantation of blood-derived or bone marrow-derived stem cells may improve cardiac regeneration and neovascularization after acute myocardial infarction. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) induces mobilization of bone marrow stem cells.
Objective: To assess the value of stem cell mobilization by G-CSF therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Design, setting, and patients: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of patients diagnosed with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction who had successful reperfusion by percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 hours after onset of symptoms in Germany between February 24, 2004, and February 2, 2005.
Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneously either a daily dose of 10 microg/kg of G-CSF or placebo for 5 days.
Main outcome measures: The primary end point was reduction of left ventricular infarct size according to technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scintigraphy performed at baseline and at 4 to 6 months after randomization. Secondary end points included improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the incidence of angiographic restenosis.
Results: Of the 114 patients, 56 were assigned to receive treatment with G-CSF and 58 were assigned to receive placebo. Treatment with G-CSF produced a significant mobilization of stem cells. Between baseline and follow-up, left ventricular infarct size according to scintigraphy was reduced by a mean (SD) of 6.2% (9.1%) in the G-CSF group and 4.9% (8.9%) in the placebo group (P = .56) and left ventricular ejection fraction was improved by 0.5% (3.8%) in the G-CSF group and 2.0% (4.9%) in the placebo group (P = .14). Angiographic restenosis occurred in 19 (35.2%) of 54 patients in the G-CSF group and in 17 (30.9%) of 55 patients in the placebo group (P = .79). The most common adverse event among patients assigned to G-CSF was mild to moderate bone pain and muscle discomfort.
Conclusion: Stem cell mobilization by G-CSF therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction and successful mechanical reperfusion has no influence on infarct size, left ventricular function, or coronary restenosis.
Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00126100.