3-(3,5-Dimethylbenzyl)uracil (3) was treated with alkyl halides in the presence of alkali to give 1-substituted congeners. Condensation of 3 with alcohols using the Mitsunobu reaction was also employed as an alternative method. The anti-HIV-1 activity of 1-substituted analogues of 3-(3,5-dimethylbenzyl)uracil was evaluated according to previously established procedures. It appeared that the nitrogen of the 1-cyanomethyl group is important for anti-HIV-1 activity, suggesting interaction with the amino acid residue of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. 1-Arylmethyl derivatives also showed good anti-HIV-1 activity; and that of 2- and 4-picolyl derivatives was particularly excellent. These results were confirmed by Docking Studies using the program, Glide ligand docking jobs, which suggests hydrogen bonding between amide N-H of Lys 101 and nitrogen of the cyanomethyl and picolyl group.