Analysis of gender difference of cardiac risk biomarkers using hGH-transgenic mice

Exp Anim. 2006 Jan;55(1):1-9. doi: 10.1538/expanim.55.1.


We investigated gender difference in the effects of chronic exposure to human growth hormone (hGH) on cardiac risk biomarkers using transgenic mice with non-pulsatile circulating hGH. Blood plasma was obtained from transgenic and control mice at 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, and was used for the measurement of hGH and the following cardiac risk biomarkers: total cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), HDL cholesterol (HDL), LDL cholesterol (LDL), non esterified free fatty acids (NEFA), and lipid peroxides (LPO). The hearts and the livers of transgenic mice were weighed and histopathologically examined, and the results were compared with those of control mice. Transgenic males exhibited higher levels of LDL at 8 and 12 weeks of age and higher levels of LPO at every week of age examined, as compared to those of the control males, while transgenic females exhibited somewhat lower levels of LDL and LPO from 8 to 16 weeks of age, as compared to the control females. The relative heart weight in males increased with aging and was significantly higher in the 16-week-old transgenic males compared to those of the control mice. The present results demonstrate that transgenic males had cardiac risk potential caused by chronic-exposure to hGH as compared to females. The results also show that the present transgenic mouse line is a useful model for the study of gender difference in cardiac disorders caused by hGH.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers / blood*
  • Cardiomegaly / blood
  • Cardiomegaly / genetics
  • Cardiomegaly / pathology
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Female
  • Heart Diseases / blood*
  • Heart Diseases / genetics
  • Heart Diseases / pathology
  • Human Growth Hormone / blood*
  • Human Growth Hormone / genetics
  • Lipid Peroxides / blood
  • Liver / pathology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Myocytes, Cardiac / pathology
  • Organ Size
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Lipid Peroxides
  • Human Growth Hormone