Aims: To identify the predictive factors for acute renal failure (ARF) in a retrospective study of 100 orthotopic liver transplantations (OLT) performed in 94 patients between 2000 and 2003.
Methods: Acute renal failure (ARF) was defined using the RIFLE criteria, i.e. injury when creatinine doubles or GFR halves, and failure when creatinine trebles or GFR decreases by > 75%. Patients on dialysis pre OLT (n = 3) were excluded from the study. Immunosuppression included steroids, calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), with (n = 32) or without mycophenolate mofetil. A total of 85% of patients also received induction therapy with antithymocyte globulins (29%) or anti-CD25 monoclonal antibodies (56%).
Results: 39 patients (41.5%) and 21 (22.3%) patients developed injury, and failure, respectively. Of these, 10 (10.6%) underwent dialysis. Univariate analysis revealed that acute renal dysfunction with a RIFLE score > or = 3 was significantly associated with a pre-operative serum creatinine level of > 100 micromol/l, pre-operative creatinine clearance of < 75 ml/mn, need for a transfusion (> 10 red packed units), post-operative diuresis of < 100 ml/h, use of vasopressive drugs, times to aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase peaks of > 20 and > 24 hours, respectively, relaparotomy, CNIs transient discontinuation, and the use of lower daily dosage of CNIs at post-OLT Days 3, 5, 7 and 15. In multivariate analysis, failure was significantly associated with time to AST peak (> 20 h) (OR 6.35 (1.2 - 33.6), p = 0.029), post-operative diuresis (< 100 ml/h) (OR 9.8 (2.03 47.3), p = 0.004), post-operative use of vasopressive drugs (OR 9.91 (2.02 - 48.7), p = 0.004), and transient CNIs withdrawal (OR 51.08 (7.58-344.1), p < 0.0001). Finally, the occurrence of ARF was significantly associated with an increased number of days on mechanical ventilation, on stay-in intensive care unit (ICU), and on overall hospitalization time.
Conclusion: ARF is quite common after OLT and significantly increases the post-operative time at the hospital, thereby increasing the OLT cost. Its independent predictive factors are mainly related to perioperative events.