Apolipoprotein A-I(Milano) (apoA-I(M)) is a natural variant of apoA-I characterized by a cysteine for arginine substitution at position 173 of the primary sequence. ApoA-I(M) carriers have much less atherosclerosis than expected from their very low plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, suggesting that the variant might be protective. Synthetic HDL (sHDL) made with a recombinant form of the dimeric A-I(M) (A-I(M)/A-I(M)) and phospholipids given in single or multiple injections is effective in inducing the regression of atherosclerotic plaques, preventing arterial restenosis, and limiting cardiac dysfunction after ischemia/reperfusion injury. In a phase II trial in patients with acute coronary syndromes, a short-term treatment with A-I(M)/A-I(M) sHDL caused a remarkable reduction of atheroma burden. Although at early stages of drug development, A-I(M)/A-I(M) sHDL holds vast promise for the treatment of a variety of cardiovascular diseases in humans.