Enterobacter sakazakii: an emerging pathogen in powdered infant formula

Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Apr 1;42(7):996-1002. doi: 10.1086/501019. Epub 2006 Feb 22.


Enterobacter sakazakii represents a significant risk to the health of neonates. This bacterium is an emerging opportunistic pathogen that is associated with rare but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in premature and full-term infants. Infants aged <28 days are considered to be most at risk. Feeding with powdered infant formula (PIF) has been epidemiologically implicated in several clinical cases. Infants should be exclusively breast-fed for the first 6 months of life, and those who are not should be provided with a suitable breast-milk substitute. PIF is not a sterile product; to reduce the risk of infection, the reconstitution of powdered formula should be undertaken by caregivers using good hygienic measures and in accordance with the product manufacturer's food safety guidelines.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cronobacter sakazakii / classification
  • Cronobacter sakazakii / drug effects
  • Cronobacter sakazakii / isolation & purification*
  • Cronobacter sakazakii / pathogenicity
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / epidemiology
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / etiology
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / transmission
  • Food Microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Formula*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Public Health
  • Safety
  • Virulence