Background: Hemagglutinin and outer membrane protein (OMP) are major virulence factors associated with colonization of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the gingival crevice. The genes for the 200-kDa antigenic protein (200-kDa AP) and 40-kDa OMP of P. gingivalis have been successfully cloned. Additionally, the 200-kDa AP gene has been shown to constitute the hemagglutinin A (hagA) gene of P. gingivalis. Therefore, this study was constructed to evaluate the distributions and serum levels of immnoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies specific for 200-kDa AP and 40-kDa OMP in periodontitis patients.
Methods: Fifty patients with chronic periodontitis and 59 controls without periodontal destruction were enrolled in this study. We cloned the genes for 200-kDa AP and 40-kDa OMP from P. gingivalis and constructed the purified recombinant proteins. Serum levels of IgG subclass antibodies specific for both recombinant 200-kDa and 40-kDa OMP were determined in patients and controls by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
Results: The serum IgG subclass distribution for patients and controls was IgG1>IgG4>IgG2>IgG3 in the anti-200-kDa AP response, which was almost identical to that in the anti-40-kDa OMP response. The patient group showed significantly higher serum IgG responses to the 40-kDa OMP than the control group (P<0.01). In contrast, IgG subclass responses to the 200-kDa AP were not different between the patients and controls. Serum levels of antibodies reactive with both 200-kDa and 40-kDa proteins did not have a significant association with mean probing depth.
Conclusion: These results suggested that serum IgG responses against P. gingivalis OMP rather than the hagA may be more active in chronic periodontitis.