Cervical cancer, a potentially preventable disease, remains the second most common malignancy in women worldwide. Human papillomavirus is the single most important etiological agent in cervical cancer, contributing to neoplastic progression through the action of viral oncoproteins, mainly E6 and E7, which interfere with critical cell cycle pathways, p53 and retinoblastoma. However, evidence suggests that human papillomavirus infection alone is insufficient to induce malignant changes and that other host genetic variations are important in the development of cervical cancer. This article will discuss the latest molecular profiling techniques available and review the published literature relating to their role in the diagnosis and management of cervical dysplasia and cancer. It is hoped that these techniques will allow the detection of novel biomarkers at DNA, RNA, microRNA and protein levels, which may ultimately play a role in facilitating early disease diagnosis and in predicting response to therapies, thus allowing the development of personalized treatment strategies.