In vitro-in vivo extrapolation of quantitative hepatic biotransformation data for fish. I. A review of methods, and strategies for incorporating intrinsic clearance estimates into chemical kinetic models

Aquat Toxicol. 2006 Jun 10;78(1):74-90. doi: 10.1016/j.aquatox.2006.01.017. Epub 2006 Feb 28.


Scientists studying mammals have developed a stepwise approach to predict in vivo hepatic clearance from measurements of in vitro hepatic biotransformation. The resulting clearance estimates have been used to screen drug candidates, investigate idiosyncratic drug responses, and support chemical risk assessments. In this report, we review these methods, discuss their potential application to studies with fish, and describe how extrapolated values could be incorporated into well-known compartmental kinetic models. Empirical equations that relate extrapolation factors to chemical log K(ow) are given to facilitate the incorporation of metabolism data into bioconcentration and bioaccumulation models. Because they explicitly incorporate the concept of clearance, compartmental clearance-volume models are particularly well suited for incorporating hepatic clearance estimates. The manner in which these clearance values are incorporated into a given model depends, however, on the measurement frame of reference. Procedures for the incorporation of in vitro biotransformation data into physiologically based toxicokinetic (PBTK) models are also described. Unlike most compartmental models, PBTK models are developed to describe the effects of metabolism in the tissue where it occurs. In addition, PBTK models are well suited to modeling metabolism in more than one tissue.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biotransformation
  • Fishes / metabolism*
  • Liver / metabolism*
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Models, Biological
  • Models, Chemical
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / pharmacokinetics*


  • Water Pollutants, Chemical