Antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia and the Ser9Gly polymorphism in the DRD3 gene: a meta analysis

Schizophr Res. 2006 Apr;83(2-3):185-92. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2006.01.010. Epub 2006 Mar 2.


Background: A polymorphic site in the gene encoding the dopamine 3 receptor (DRD3) resulting in a serine (Ser) into glycine (Gly) substitution has been shown to affect dopamine binding affinity, and may contribute to individual differences in susceptibility to antipsychotic-induced tardive dyskinesia (TD).

Methods: A Medline, EMBASE and PsychINFO search of literature published between 1976 and March 2005 yielded 11 studies from which data were extracted for calculation of pooled estimates using meta-analytic techniques.

Results: The Gly allele increased the risk relative to the Ser allele (OR=1.17; 95% CI: 1.01-1.37) with evidence of publication bias. No significant genotype effects were apparent.

Conclusions: TD may be associated with functional variation in the DRD3 allele. However, caution is required in interpreting this finding, as there is evidence of publication bias, genetic methodology has shortcomings, and the relation between antipsychotics, schizophrenia and TD is complex.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alleles
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Chi-Square Distribution
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / etiology
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / genetics*
  • Female
  • Glycine / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Polymorphism, Genetic*
  • Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy
  • Receptors, Dopamine D3 / genetics*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Review Literature as Topic
  • Serine / genetics*


  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Receptors, Dopamine D3
  • Serine
  • Glycine