From 1982 to 1990, 38 patients with intraperitoneal hemorrhage from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) underwent treatment with emergency embolization with or without anticancer drug and iodized oil. Before emergency embolization, 24 patients had a serum total bilirubin value of 3.0 mg/dL or less (group A) and 14 patients had hyperbilirubinemia, with a serum bilirubin level greater than 3.0 mg/dL (group B). Successful hemostasis was achieved in all patients. The mean length of survival was 165 days in group A and 13 days in group B. A significant correlation (P less than .00003) between serum bilirubin level and prognosis was obtained. While tumor thrombus in the portal vein made the prognosis poor, there was no significant difference in prognosis between groups with and without tumor thrombus (P = .145). Emergency embolization is an effective treatment in patients with intraperitoneal hemorrhage from HCC. The prognosis for patients with HCC depends on the serum bilirubin level before embolization.