Raf1, Aurora-A/STK15 and E-cadherin biomarkers expression in patients with pTa/pT1 urothelial bladder carcinoma; a retrospective TMA study of 246 patients with long-term follow-up

Eur J Surg Oncol. 2006 May;32(4):439-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ejso.2006.01.018. Epub 2006 Mar 6.


Aims: The study was designed to evaluate Raf1, Aurora-A/STK15 and E-cadherin (E-CD) protein expression and their prognostic value in patients with pTa/pT1 tumours.

Materials and methods: A tissue microarray of 105 pTa, and 141 pT1 tumours was constructed and sections were immunostained with these three antibodies.

Results: There were significant associations between Raf1 overexpression and tumour grade (p = 0.03), between Aurora-A overexpression/alterations of E-CD and tumour grade and stage (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). In multiple Cox regression analysis, moderate/strong expression of E-CD seemed to be an independent factor in predicting slower tumour progression (p = 0.003) and Aurora-A overexpression (p = 0.022) displays an independent value in predicting tumour recurrences.

Conclusion: Evaluation of E-CD and Aurora-A expressions in tissue of patients with pTa/pT1 UC have been proven to be useful in predicting tumours behavior and Raf1 protein expression seemed to have no potential use in this regard.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aurora Kinase A
  • Aurora Kinases
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis*
  • Cadherins / biosynthesis*
  • Carcinoma / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma / pathology
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness
  • Prognosis
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / biosynthesis*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf / biosynthesis*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Tissue Array Analysis
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • Urothelium / pathology


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Cadherins
  • AURKA protein, human
  • Aurora Kinase A
  • Aurora Kinases
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf