In this study, the in vitro effects of vitamin C and selenium on natural killer (NK) cell activity of ss-thalassemia major patients was investigated. At first, significant decreased NK activity was found at E:T ratios of 1:1, 5:1, and 10:1 in whole thalassemia patients. Low-dose selenium treatment enhanced NK activity in patients but there was no change in the control group. High-dose selenium decreased NK activity significantly in splenectomized patients. Different doses vitamin C enhanced NK activity significantly in both splenectomized and unsplenectomized patients. According to these results, selenium dosage should be arranged carefully in thalassemia patients, whereas vitamin C can be used confidently.