Medial epicondylitis of the elbow involves pathologic alteration in the musculotendinous origins at the medial epicondyle. Although commonly referred to as "golfer's elbow", the condition may in fact be caused by a variety of sports and occupational activities. Accurate diagnosis requires a thorough understanding of the anatomic, epidemiologic, and pathophysiologic factors. Nonoperative treatment involves rest, ice, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and possibly corticosteroid injection followed by guided rehabilitation and return to sport. Operative treatment is indicated for debilitating pain after exclusion of other pathologic causes that persists in spite of a well-managed nonoperative regimen spanning a minimum of 6 months. The surgical technique involves excision of the pathologic portion of the tendon, repair of the resulting defect, and reattachment of the origin of the flexor pronator muscle group to the medial epicondyle. Surgical treatment results in a high degree of subjective relief, although objective strength deficits may persist.