Coordinated control of renal Ca2+ handling

Kidney Int. 2006 Feb;69(4):650-4. doi: 10.1038/sj.ki.5000169.

Abstract

Ca2+ homeostasis is an important factor, which is underlined by the numerous clinical symptoms that involve Ca2+ deficiencies. The overall Ca2+ balance is maintained by the concerted action of Ca2+ absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidney, and exchange from bone, which are all under the control of the calciotropic hormones that are released upon a demand for Ca2+. In the kidney, these calciotropic hormones affect active Ca2+ reabsorption, which consists of TRPV5 as the apical entry gate for Ca2+ influx, calbindin-D28K as an intracellular ferry for Ca2+ and, NCX1 and PMCA1b for extrusion of Ca2+ across the basolateral membrane. This review highlights the action of hormones on renal Ca2+ handling and focuses on the coordinated control of the renal Ca2+ transport proteins. Parathyroid hormone stimulates renal Ca2+ handling by regulating active Ca2+ reabsorption on both the genomic and non-genomic level. Estrogens harbor calciotropic hormone characteristics positively regulating the expression of TRPV5, independently of vitamin D. Besides having a strong regulatory effect on the expression of the intestinal Ca2+ transport proteins, vitamin D contributes to the overall Ca2+ balance by enhancing the expression of the Ca2+ transport machinery in the kidney. Dietary Ca2+ is involved in regulating its own handling by controlling the expression of the renal Ca2+ transport proteins. Thus, the magnitude of Ca2+ entry via TRPV5 controls the expression of the other Ca2+ transport proteins underlining the gatekeeper function of this Ca2+ channel in the renal Ca2+ handling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Absorption / drug effects
  • Animals
  • Calbindin 1
  • Calbindins
  • Calcium / deficiency
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Calcium Channels / physiology
  • Calcium, Dietary / pharmacology
  • Calcium-Transporting ATPases / physiology
  • Cation Transport Proteins / physiology
  • Estrogens / physiology
  • Homeostasis*
  • Humans
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Parathyroid Hormone / physiology
  • Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / physiology
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchanger / physiology
  • TRPV Cation Channels / physiology
  • Vitamin D / physiology

Substances

  • CALB1 protein, human
  • Calbindin 1
  • Calbindins
  • Calcium Channels
  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • Estrogens
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
  • Sodium-Calcium Exchanger
  • TRPV Cation Channels
  • TRPV5 protein, human
  • sodium-calcium exchanger 1
  • Vitamin D
  • Plasma Membrane Calcium-Transporting ATPases
  • Calcium-Transporting ATPases
  • Calcium