After successful percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), elevations of cardiac enzymes are not rare, but it is still not clear whether those elevations are associated with adverse late outcome. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relation between cardiac troponin I (cTn-I) increase after successful percutaneous intervention and late outcome. The study consisted of 100 consecutive patients (mean age 56 +/-9.8, 84% male) who had successful elective coronary balloon angioplasty with or without stent implantation. Patients with stable angina (n=54) and unstable angina (n=46) were included in the study. Blood samples for measurement of cTn-I were taken before and immediately after the procedure, and every 6 hours for the first 24 hours. Patients with preprocedural cTn-I elevation were excluded from the study. Postprocedural cTn-I elevation was detected in 34 patients (34%, troponin (+) group) and cTn-I levels were normal in 66 patients (66%, troponin (-) group). Logistic regression analysis showed that intervention in patients with unstable angina, stent implantation following balloon dilation, and maximal inflation pressure were the predictors of cTn-I elevation (p=0.035, p=0.038, and p=0.014, respectively). During the prospective follow-up period for 21 +/-7.5 months, the incidence of major cardiac events including recurrent angina, acute myocardial infarction, death, and revascularization were not different in patients with and without cTn-I elevation. Overall, major cardiac events occurred in 9 patients (26%) in the troponin (+) group and in 13 patients (20%) in the troponin (-) group. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that cTn-I elevation was not an important correlate of overall cardiac events (log-rank: 1.66, p=0.19). The authors conclude that postprocedural cTn-I elevation is related to unstable angina, stent implantation following predilation, and inflation pressure, and there is no association with minor myocardial injury occurring after successful percutaneous coronary intervention and late adverse cardiac events.