SV40 chromosomes prepared from infected CV-1 cells were replicated with the purified proteins of SV40 T antigen, HeLa DNA polymerase alpha-primase complex, single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and topoisomerases I and II, all of which have been shown to be essential for SV40 DNA replication in vitro. Replication started near the origin and proceeded bidirectionally. The maximum speed of replication fork movement was 200-300 nucleotides/min, which was similar to the rate of SV40 DNA replication with the same set of proteins. When replication products were digested with micrococcal nuclease, DNA fragments of 160-180 base pairs, which is the typical size of mononucleosomal DNA, were protected. This result indicates that replicated DNA was reconstructed into the nucleosome structure, complexed with parental histones.