Objectives: To validate scoring algorithm criteria established by the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine (JAAM) for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and to evaluate its diagnostic property by comparing the two leading scoring systems for DIC, from the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare (JMHW) and International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH).
Design: Prospective, multicenter study during a 3-month period.
Setting: General critical care center in a tertiary care hospital.
Patients: Two hundred seventy-three patients with platelet counts<150x109/L were enrolled.
Measurements and main results: The JAAM, JMHW, and ISTH DIC scoring algorithms were prospectively applied within 12 hrs of patients meeting the inclusion criteria (day 0) to days 1-3, by global coagulation tests. The numbers of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores were determined simultaneously. Mortality associated with any cause was also assessed 28 days after the enrollment. All global coagulation tests and SIRS criteria adopted in the JAAM criteria and their cutoff points were validated with use of SOFA scores and mortality rate. DIC diagnostic rate of the JAAM DIC scoring system was significantly higher than that of the other two criteria (p<.001). The JAAM DIC algorithm was the most sensitive for early diagnosis of DIC (p<.001). PATIENTS who fulfilled the JAAM DIC criteria included almost all those whose DIC was diagnosed by the JMHW and ISTH scoring systems. The JAAM DIC scores showed significant correlation with SOFA scores ([rho]=0.499; p<.001). SOFA score and mortality rate worsened in accordance with an increase in the JAAM DIC score. Fibrinogen criteria had little effect in predicting outcome for the DIC patients, and a total score of 4 points in the JAAM scoring system without fibrinogen was closely related to poor prognosis. According to the results, we revised the JAAM criteria by excluding fibrinogen and confirmed that the DIC diagnostic properties of original criteria remained unchanged in the revised JAAM criteria.
Conclusions: The JAAM scoring system has an acceptable property for the diagnosis of DIC. The scoring system identified most of the patients diagnosed by the JMHW and ISTH criteria. Revised JAAM DIC criteria preserved all properties of the original criteria for DIC diagnosis. The revised scoring system can be useful for selecting DIC patients for early treatment in a critical care setting.