Recently, several association studies of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-4alpha gene were reported with conflicting results. Our aim was to search for association between two polymorphisms of HNF-4alpha and T2DM in Polish Caucasians. The study groups comprised of 461 T2DM cases and 366 controls. Genotype-quantitative trait analyses were based on the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glucose and insulin results, and comprised 310 glucose-tolerant subjects. All individuals were genotyped for two HNF-4alpha polymorphisms. The frequencies of the minor alleles were as follows: 19.2% in T2DM vs. 17.6% in controls for rs2144908; and 20.6% vs. 20.1% for rs4810424, respectively. The distributions of alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes of the HNF-4alpha polymorphisms did not differ between the study groups (lowest P = 0.41). None of the examined SNPs showed an association in control subjects with quantitative traits of fasting plasma glucose, fasting insulin, as well as plasma glucose and insulin 2 hours after glucose load in OGTT. We conclude that both examined polymorphisms in HNF-4alpha are not associated with T2DM and prediabetic phenotypes in Polish Caucasian study groups of this size.