Comparison of the steady-state pharmacokinetics of fosinopril, lisinopril and enalapril in patients with chronic renal insufficiency

Clin Pharmacokinet. 1991 May;20(5):420-7. doi: 10.2165/00003088-199120050-00006.


The phosphinyl ester prodrug fosinopril, a new angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, is fully hydrolysed after oral administration to the pharmacologically active diacid, fosinoprilat. This metabolite is cleared by both hepatic and renal routes, while most other ACE inhibitors are cleared exclusively by the kidney. In the present study, after administration of multiple fixed oral doses the accumulation of the active moieties of fosinopril, enalapril and lisinopril was compared in patients with renal insufficiency. 29 patients with creatinine clearances (CLCR) less than 30 ml/min received either fosinopril 10mg (n = 9), enalapril 2.5mg (n = 10) or lisinopril 5mg (n = 10) once daily for 10 days in a nonblind (open-label) parallel study. Pharmacokinetic parameters including area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC), peak serum concentration (Cmax) and time to peak concentration (tmax), as well as renal function, blood pressure, and plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone levels, were determined on the first and last days of the study. The percentage (+/- SEM) increases in AUC from day 1 to day 10 for fosinoprilat, enalaprilat and lisinopril were 26.8 +/- 9.9 (nonsignificant), 76.6 +/- 16.6 (p less than 0.001) and 161.7 +/- 31.8% (p less than 0.001), respectively. These results indicate that there was significantly less accumulation of fosinoprilat, based on accumulation indices, relative to either enalaprilat (p less than 0.05) or lisinopril (p less than 0.001) during the study. The Cmax of fosinopril increased significantly less than that of lisinopril (21.1 vs 123.6%; p less than 0.01). Renal function was not altered in any group, and blood pressure changed modestly.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / blood
  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacokinetics*
  • Enalapril / analogs & derivatives*
  • Enalapril / blood
  • Enalapril / pharmacokinetics*
  • Female
  • Fosinopril
  • Humans
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / metabolism*
  • Lisinopril
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Proline / analogs & derivatives*
  • Proline / blood
  • Proline / pharmacokinetics


  • Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Enalapril
  • Proline
  • Lisinopril
  • Fosinopril