Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive lymphoid malignancy for which better treatment strategies are needed. To identify potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets, a signature consisting of MCL-associated genes was selected based on a comprehensive gene expression analysis of malignant and normal B cells. The corresponding protein epitope signature tags were identified and used to raise monospecific, polyclonal antibodies, which were subsequently analyzed on paraffin-embedded sections of malignant and normal tissue. In this study, we demonstrate that the initial selection strategy of MCL-associated genes successfully allows identification of protein antigens either uniquely expressed or overexpressed in MCL compared with normal lymphoid tissues. We propose that genome-based, affinity proteomics, using protein epitope signature tag-induced antibodies, is an efficient way to rapidly identify a number of disease-associated protein candidates of both previously known and unknown identities.