Comparative morphological study on the stereo-structure of the lingual papillae and their connective tissue cores of the American beaver (Castor canadensis)

Okajimas Folia Anat Jpn. 2006 Feb;82(4):127-37. doi: 10.2535/ofaj.82.127.


The lingual papillae and the connective tissue cores (CTC) of the American beaver were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of American beaver was about 9 cm in length, 3.5 cm in width, and has a lingual prominence. Four types of papillae (filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae) were observed. The filiform papillae can be classified into three types (filiform, large filiform and dorm-like papillae). Filiform papillae distributed on the anterior tongue and posterior of the lingual prominence consisted of a posterior thick main process and several small accessory processes. After removal of the epithelium, the CTCs of the filiform papillae had U-shaped, horseshoe-like primary cores with 10-15 rod-shaped small accessory cores. Large filiform papillae were distributed at the anterior margin of the lingual prominence. Dome-like papillae were distributed at the top of lingual prominence. Fungiform papillae were observed two types. Fungiform papillae, which were distributed at the anterior tongue, were round shaped. Fungiform papillae of the posterior of the lingual prominence were large and surrounded with a papillary groove. At the posterior of the tongue, three vallate papillae were arranged in a triangular pattern. Foliate papillae were on 22 to 25 parallel ridges and grooves.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Connective Tissue / anatomy & histology*
  • Connective Tissue / ultrastructure
  • Epithelium / anatomy & histology
  • Epithelium / ultrastructure
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Male
  • Microscopy
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Rodentia / anatomy & histology*
  • Tongue / anatomy & histology*
  • Tongue / ultrastructure