Tissue-like phantoms for near-infrared fluorescence imaging system assessment and the training of surgeons

J Biomed Opt. Jan-Feb 2006;11(1):014007. doi: 10.1117/1.2170579.


We demonstrate how to construct calibrated, stable, and inexpensive tissue-like phantoms for near-IR (NIR) fluorescence imaging applications. The bulk phantom material is composed of gelatin, intralipid, hemoglobin, and indocyanine green (ICG). Absorbance, scatter, background fluorescence, and texture can be tuned as desired. NIR fluorescent inclusions are comprised of ICG-labeled polystyrene divinylbenzene beads and Pam78-labeled hydroxyapatite crystals. The former mimic tumor masses of controllable size and contrast agent concentration, and the latter mimic microcalcifications in breast cancer. NIR-fluorescent inclusions can be positioned precisely in phantoms, with one or more regions having different optical properties, and their position can be verified independently using microcomputed tomography. We demonstrate how these phantoms can be used to calibrate and compare imaging systems, and to train surgeons to operate under NIR fluorescence image guidance.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calibration
  • Equipment Design
  • Equipment Failure Analysis
  • General Surgery / education*
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation*
  • Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence / instrumentation*
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods
  • Phantoms, Imaging*
  • Spectrophotometry, Infrared / instrumentation*
  • Spectrophotometry, Infrared / methods
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / education*
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation*