Background: Patients with hyperplastic polyposis coli syndrome (HPCS) have a propensity to develop colorectal carcinoma (CRC).
Patients and methods: Details were retrieved from the files of patients attending our hospital between 1988 and 2004 who fulfilled the World Health Organization criteria for HPCS.
Results: Over a period of 16 years, 10 cases of HPCS were identified at our hospital (0.625 cases/year or one case every 1.6 years). A mean of 40.3 hyperplastic polyps per patient were found (range 6-159). Other colorectal lesions were found as follows: two patients each had one mixed polyp; there were 15 serrated adenomas in eight patients; and there were 30 tubular, tubulovillous, or villous adenomas in eight patients. Among the 10 patients with HPCS, seven developed a CRC. Of the four villous adenomas, three were associated with a CRC, but only one of the 15 serrated adenomas was associated with a CRC. The pathway of cancer evolution in HPCS patients remains unresolved.
Conclusions: Similarly to our results, a review of the literature indicates a high incidence of CRCs in HPCS patients. These patients are at a high risk of developing a CRC and should therefore receive regular colonoscopic surveillance.