Xiangzamian 2 (XZM2) is the most widely cultivated cotton hybrid in China. By crossing two parents Zhongmiansuo12 and 8891 and upon subsequent selfings, we got F8 and F9 populations having 180 recombinant inbred lines. Ten plant architecture traits were investigated in two years with this population. A genetic map was constructed mainly with SSR markers. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning plant architecture traits were determined at the single-locus and double-locus levels. The results showed that epistastic effects as well as additive effects of QTL played an important role as the genetic basis of cotton plant architecture. The QTL detected in our research might provide new information on improving plant architecture traits. The polymorphism of molecular markers between ZMS12 and 8891 were quite limited, while significant differences between their phenotypes were found and the hybrid XZM2 expressed high heterosis in yield. All these could be partly explained by the effect of epistatic QTL.