We earlier isolated a Chinese hamster ovary cell line ZP121 showing morphologically abnormal, tubular peroxisomes, and apparent dysmorphogenesis of mitochondria. Here, we identified an inactivating point-mutation in dynamin-like protein 1 gene, DLP1, responsible for the phenotype of ZP121. One allele of DLP1 possessed a point missense mutation resulting in G363D in the middle region of 699-amino-acid long DLP1, termed DLP1G363D, while the other allele was normal. DLP1G363D was apparently expressed at a higher level than DLP1. Abnormal morphogenesis of peroxisomes as well as mitochondria was restored when wild-type DLP1 was transfected. The GTPase activity of DLP1G363D was barely detectable, indicating that the G363D mutation severely affected the GTPase activity. Moreover, a higher level of DLP1G363D expression in CHO-K1 cells reproduced the ZP121-type phenotype, hence indicating its dominant-negative activity to the wild-type DLP1, most likely by forming a heteromeric tetramer. The G363D mutation also gave rise to a temperature-sensitive phenotype showing normal morphogenesis of peroxisomes and mitochondria at 40 degrees C. Microtubule organization was most likely involved in the elongation of peroxisomes. Furthermore, ZP121 was lowered in the level of phospholipids, plasmalogens, and phosphatidylethanolamine and was less sensitive to oxidative stresses. Thus, ZP121 is the first dlp1 mutant in mammalian cells.