Cyclic di-GMP as a second messenger

Curr Opin Microbiol. 2006 Apr;9(2):218-28. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2006.02.010. Epub 2006 Mar 10.


In many bacteria bis-(3',5')-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) signaling determines the timing and amplitude of complex biological processes from biofilm formation and virulence to photosynthesis. Thereby, the tightly regulated temporal and spatial activity patterns of GGDEF and EAL domain proteins, which synthesize and degrade c-di-GMP, respectively, are currently being resolved. Although details of the mechanisms of c-di-GMP signaling are not yet determined, the recent presentation of PilZ as a candidate c-di-GMP binding-domain opens the field for experimental investigations. Besides its role as an intracellular signaling molecule in bacteria, c-di-GMP also acts as an intercellular signaling molecule between prokaryotes and also has effects in eukaryotes that could provide a perspective in cancer treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacteria / metabolism*
  • Bacteria / pathogenicity
  • Bacterial Physiological Phenomena
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Biofilms / growth & development
  • Cell Line, Tumor / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cyclic GMP / metabolism*
  • Cyclic GMP / pharmacology
  • Cyclic GMP / physiology
  • Eukaryotic Cells / metabolism
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Locomotion
  • Protein Binding
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / metabolism
  • Second Messenger Systems
  • Virulence


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • Cyclic GMP