Type 1 diabetes accounts for only about 5-10% of all cases of diabetes; however, its incidence continues to increase worldwide and it has serious short-term and long-term implications. The disorder has a strong genetic component, inherited mainly through the HLA complex, but the factors that trigger onset of clinical disease remain largely unknown. Management of type 1 diabetes is best undertaken in the context of a multidisciplinary health team and requires continuing attention to many aspects, including insulin administration, blood glucose monitoring, meal planning, and screening for comorbid conditions and diabetes-related complications. These complications consist of microvascular and macrovascular disease, which account for the major morbidity and mortality associated with type 1 diabetes. Newer treatment approaches have facilitated improved outcomes in terms of both glycaemic control and reduced risks for development of complications. Nonetheless, major challenges remain in the development of approaches to the prevention and management of type 1 diabetes and its complications.