Diabetes mellitus (DM) is becoming more common in the United States affecting an estimated 18.2 million Americans. Not only is the number of American's with DM staggering, but so are the medical and economic costs of DM. DM accounts for nearly 15% of all health care costs in the United States. The chronic hyperglycemia of DM is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction and failure of multiple organ systems, including the genitourinary system. Genitourinary complications are common among diabetics. Of individuals diagnosed with DM, 80% have lower urinary tract complications, while 50% develop nephropathy and 35-75% develop sexual dysfunction. In order to decrease the number and severity of diabetic urologic complications, early recognition and a more comprehensive understanding of how diabetes impacts the genitourinary tract is imperative.