Recordings of neuronal activity in freely moving rats are common in experiments where electrical signals are transmitted using cables. Such techniques are not common in monkeys because their prehensile abilities are thought to preclude such techniques. However, analysis of brain mechanisms underlying spatial navigation and cognition require the subject to walk. We have developed techniques for recordings in freely moving monkeys in two different situations: a 5 x 5 m testing laboratory and in a 50 m2 open field environment. Neuronal signals are sent to amplifiers and data acquisition systems using cables or telemetry. These techniques provide high quality recordings of single neurons during behaviors such as foraging, walking, and the performance of memory tasks and thus provide a unique opportunity to study primate behavior in a semi-natural situation.