This article examines the applicability of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with the addition of the self efficacy construct in the understanding of the motivation to obtain an initial screening mammogram among Cypriot women. The study sample consisted of 293 women aged 40 to 65 years, asymptomatic of breast cancer, and with no previous mammography experience. The study took place at the General Hospital of Nicosia in Cyprus. The results of the study provided support of the TPB with the addition of self-efficacy in an international setting. Self-efficacy was the strongest predictor of intention. Other predictors of intention included educational level, time of last clinical breast examination, and age. The study also provided some empirical support of the distinction between self-efficacy and perceived behavioral control. Researchers may want to include self-efficacy in addition to the TPB and other demographic characteristics in future applications to more fully explain behavioral outcomes.