Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS, characterized by demyelination and neurodegeneration. Besides the sensory and motor deficits that are the hallmark of this disease, approximately 50% of MS patients are cognitively impaired. Over the years, structural neuroimaging has been used widely in MS patients for both diagnostic and research purposes. Various conventional and nonconventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures have provided important information about the degree and mechanisms of cerebral pathology, and these measures correlate with cognitive and affective disturbances. In this article, recent contributions to the literature regarding the correlation between MRI and neuropsychological function in MS are reviewed.