Background: Polyoma BK virus produces an aggressively destructive nephropathy in approximately 3% to 8% of renal allografts, is associated with graft loss within one year in 35% to 67% of those infected and there is no therapy of proven efficacy. Leflunomide is an immune suppressive drug with anti viral activity in vitro and in animals.
Methods: We treated twenty-six patients with biopsy proven NK virus nephropathy (BKN) with either leflunomide alone (n=17) or leflunomide plus a course of cidofovir (n=9) and followed them for six to forty months. Leflunomide was dosed to a targeted blood level of active metabolite, A77 1726, of 50 microg/ml to 100 microg/ml (150 microM to 300 microM). Response to treatment was gauged by serial determinations of viral load in blood and urine (PCR), serum creatinine, and repeat allograft biopsy.
Results: In the 22 patients consistently sustaining the targeted blood levels of active drug, blood and urine viral load levels uniformly decreased over time (P<.001). Mean serum creatinine levels stabilized over the first six months of treatment, and with 12 months or more of follow-up in 16 patients the mean serum creatinine has not changed significantly from base line. Four patients who did not consistently have blood levels of active drug (A77 1726) above 40 microg/ml did not clear the virus until these levels were attained or cidofovir was added.
Conclusions: Leflunomide inhibits Polyoma virus replication in vitro and closely monitored leflunomide therapy with specifically targeted blood levels appears to be a safe and effective treatment for Polyoma BK nephropathy.