Application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to interrogate alterations in the proteome of genetically modified crops. 1. Assessing analytical validation

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2154-61. doi: 10.1021/jf0523566.


Current tools used to assess the safety of food and feed derived from modern biotechnology emphasize the investigation of possible unintended effects caused directly by the expression of transgenes or indirectly by pleiotropy. These tools include extensive multisite and multiyear agronomic evaluations, compositional analyses, animal nutrition, and classical toxicology evaluations. Because analytical technologies are rapidly developing, proteome analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) was investigated as a complementary tool to the existing technologies. A 2DE method was established for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the seed proteome of Arabidopsis thaliana with the following validation parameters examined: (1) source and scope of variation; (2) repeatability; (3) sensitivity; and (4) linearity of the method. The 2DE method resolves proteins with isoelectric points between 4 and 9 and molecular masses (MM) of 6-120 kDa and is sensitive enough to detect protein levels in the low nanogram range. The separation of the proteins was demonstrated to be very reliable with relative position variations of 1.7 and 1.1% for the pI and MM directions, respectively. The mean coefficient of variation of 254 matched spot qualities was found to be 24.8% for the gel-to-gel and 26% for the overall variability. A linear relationship (R2 > 0.9) between protein amount and spot volume was demonstrated over a 100-fold range for the majority of selected proteins. Therefore, this method could be used to interrogate proteome alterations such as a novel protein, fusion protein, or any other change that affects molecular mass, isoelectric point, and/or quantity of a protein.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / chemistry*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / chemistry*
  • Proteome / analysis*
  • Reproducibility of Results*
  • Seeds / chemistry*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Proteome