Cross-linked bromelain inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine production involving cellular signaling suppression in rats

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2193-8. doi: 10.1021/jf052390k.


Bromelain has been reported to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. It has been cross-linked with organic acids and polysaccharides by gamma irradiation. The cross-linked (CL)-bromelain preparation resisted an acidic environment of pH 3 for 2 h and preserved 80% of its enzyme activity. Pretreatment of rats with CL-bromelain intragastrically for 7 days significantly reduced serum cytokine production induced by injected i.p. with 2.5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Bromelain significantly reduced serum glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase induced by LPS. The anti-inflammatory effect of CL-bromelain was correlated with reduced LPS-induced NF-kappaB activity and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in rat livers. In addition, CL-bromelain dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced COX-2 mRNA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in BV-2 microglial cells. CL-Bromelain also suppressed the LPS-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effects of the CL-bromelain preparation in vivo and in vitro suggest its therapeutic potentials.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Bromelains / chemistry*
  • Bromelains / pharmacology*
  • Cross-Linking Reagents
  • Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Cytokines / blood
  • Dinoprostone / metabolism
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Cross-Linking Reagents
  • Cytokines
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Bromelains
  • Cyclooxygenase 2
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Dinoprostone