The aim of the present work was to investigate whether nestin, a member of the intermediate filament family, is immunohistochemically expressed in the non-tumoral human hypophysis and pituitary neoplasms. Twenty-three normal pituitaries and 125 pituitary neoplasms were included. The tissues were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded. The neoplasms were identified on hematoxylin-eosin stained sections and were classified by immunohistochemistry as well as electron microscopy. For immunohistochemistry, the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase complex method was applied using appropriate controls. Several corticotrophs in the autopsy obtained pituitaries showed cytoplasmic nestin immunopositivity. No nestin immunoreactivity was found in other cell types in non-tumorous adenohypophyses and in the cells of various pituitary adenomas. Nestin was, however, expressed in a small proportion of endothelial cells in both anterior and posterior lobes. Staining was also noted in several pituicytes, neurohypophysial nerve fibers, and Herring bodies. In contrast to CD-34 and Factor-8 immunostaining which demonstrated immunopositivity in practically all endothelial cells of every capillary, nestin expression was only focally seen suggesting that the functional status of the immunoreactive and non-staining endothelial cells was not the same. No statistically significant correlation was apparent between nestin immunoreactivity and patient age, gender, tumor size, mitotic index, Ki-67, labeling nuclear index, hormonal immunoprofile, and tumor type. In conclusion, nestin expression in adenomas cannot be viewed as a biologically relevant marker of cell proliferation and as a prognostic indicator. The patchy expression of nestin in endothelial cells remains unexplained and its significance requires further studies.