The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of the short-acting insulin secretion drug repaglinide in new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM) after renal transplantation. Twenty-three Caucasian patients with NODM after renal transplantation were selected to receive repaglinide therapy and were followed for at least 6 months. A control group treated with rosiglitazone was chosen for comparison. Successful repaglinide treatment was defined as a significant improvement of blood glucose concentrations and HbA1c <7% in the absence of glucosuria and without the need for the addition of further anti-diabetic agents. After 6 months of treatment with repaglinide, 14 of the 23 patients were successfully treated. Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6 +/- 0.6% to 5.8 +/- 0.6% in 14 patients treated successfully. In nine patients, hyperglycemia persisted, and they were switched to insulin treatment (HbA1c 8.5 +/- 2.9% at the beginning to 7.4 +/- 2.2%). Mean serum creatinine levels, cyclosporine A and tacrolimus blood levels did not change significantly following institution of repaglinide therapy. The rate of successful treatment and the degree of HbA1c decrease were similar compared to rosiglitazone-treated control patients. The data from our observational study indicate that repaglinide can be an effective treatment option in Caucasian patients with NODM after renal transplantation.