Unlike commercial sex workers and patients attending sexually transmitted infection (STI) clinics, married couples are not typically targeted for HIV risk reduction programs in India. Thus, married partners of HIV-infected persons are at particularly high risk for HIV infection. Between September 2002 and November 2004, 457 HIV-1 sero-discordant, married couples were enrolled in a one-year prospective study of HIV transmission in Pune, India. The HIV incidence among uninfected partners was 1.22 per 100 person-years (95% CI 0.45-2.66), which is much lower than what has been previously reported among discordant couples in Africa. This may be due to higher rates of condom use, lower rates of STIs and higher CD4 T lymphocyte counts, among the Indian HIV sero-discordant couples.