Background: Fifteen human tissue kallikrein (KLK) genes have been identified as a cluster on chromosome 19. KLK expression is associated with various human diseases including cancers. Noncoding RNAs such as PCA3/DD3 and PCGEM1 have been identified in prostate cancer cells.
Methods: Using massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) technology, RT-PCR, and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), we identified and cloned a novel gene that maps to the KLK locus.
Results: We have characterized this gene, named as KLK31P by the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, as an unprocessed KLK pseudogene. It contains five exons, two of which are KLK-derived while the rest are "exonized" interspersed repeats. KLK31P is expressed abundantly in prostate tissues and is androgen regulated. KLK31P is expressed at lower levels in localized and metastatic prostate cancer cells than in normal prostate cells.
Conclusions: KLK31P is a novel androgen regulated and transcribed pseudogene of kallikreins that may play a role in prostate carcinogenesis or maintenance.
Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.