Toll-like receptors in central nervous system glial inflammation and homeostasis

J Neurosci Res. 2006 Apr;83(5):711-30. doi: 10.1002/jnr.20767.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors expressed on cells of the innate immune system that allow for the recognition of conserved structural motifs on a wide array of pathogens, referred to as pathogen-associated molecular patterns, as well as some endogenous molecules. The recent emergence of studies examining TLRs in the central nervous system (CNS) indicates that these receptors not only play a role in innate immunity in response to infectious diseases but may also participate in CNS autoimmunity, neurodegeneration, and tissue injury. This review summarizes the experimental evidence demonstrating a role for TLRs in the context of CNS inflammation in both infectious and noninfectious conditions.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Central Nervous System / immunology
  • Central Nervous System / metabolism
  • Central Nervous System / pathology*
  • Homeostasis / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / immunology
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Inflammation / pathology*
  • Neuroglia / immunology
  • Neuroglia / metabolism
  • Neuroglia / pathology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism*


  • Toll-Like Receptors