Introduction: The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of exogenous surfactant administration to assess whether this therapy may be useful in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Methods: We performed a computerized literature search from 1966 to December 2005 to identify randomized clinical trials. The primary outcome measure was mortality 28-30 days after randomization. Secondary outcome measures included a change in oxygenation (PaO2:FiO2 ratio), the number of ventilation-free days, and the mean duration of ventilation. Meta-analysis was performed using the inverse variance method.
Results: Two hundred and fifty-one articles were identified. Five studies met our inclusion criteria. Treatment with pulmonary surfactant was not associated with reduced mortality compared with the control group (odds ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73, 1.30). Subgroup analysis revealed no difference between surfactant containing surface protein or not - the pooled odds ratio for mortality was 0.87 (95% CI 0.48, 1.58) for trials using surface protein and the odds ratio was 1.08 (95% CI 0.72, 1.64) for trials without surface protein. The mean difference in change in the PaO2:FiO2 ratio was not significant (P = 0.11). There was a trend for improved oxygenation in the surfactant group (pooled mean change 13.18 mmHg, standard error 8.23 mmHg; 95% CI -2.95, 29.32). The number of ventilation-free days and the mean duration of ventilation could not undergo pooled analysis due to a lack of sufficient data.
Conclusion: Exogenous surfactant may improve oxygenation but has not been shown to improve mortality. Currently, exogenous surfactant cannot be considered an effective adjunctive therapy in acute respiratory distress syndrome.